Characteristic of Electromagnetic Noise Based on the Theory of Multiconductor Communication Line

Yibo Ding1*, Kaiyan Zhang1, Shishan Wang1 and Jian Guo1

1College of Automation and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Corresponding author: Yibo Ding, College of Automation and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, E-mail: dybnuaa@nuaa.edu.cn

Citation: Ding Y, ZhangK, Wang S, Guo J (2020) Characteristic of Electromagnetic Noise Based on the Theory of Multiconductor Communication Line , J Electron Adv Electr Eng 1(1): 17-21.

https://dx.doi.org/10.47890/JEAEE/2020/DYibo/11120004

Received Date: April 01, 2020; Accepted Date: April 17, 2020; Published Date: April 28, 2020

Abstract

Electromagnetic noise has serious influence on the performance of electrical system. In addition, while multiconductor cable harnesses play an important role in transmitting electromagnetic energy or signal between devices of electrical system, they are also the major path to transmit electromagnetic noise. Crosstalk, as typical electromagnetic noise within multi-conductor cable harnesses, is an important factor which affects the efficiency of transmission. In this paper, the n+1 transmission lines (n=2, n>2) are taken as the object of research. Based on the theory of Multi-conductor Transmission Line (MTL), the transmission of electromagnetic noise in transmission line is studied, including noise of generating line (called G-line) and line receiving interference (called R-line), the latter called crosstalk. Transfer functions of electromagnetic noise of G-line and R-line are simulated using FEKO (FEldberechnung bei Korpern mit beliebiger Oberflache). Two transfer functions are obtained to investigate the severity of noise of G-line and R-line. The characteristics of the parameters are also studied. Simulation results indicate that transfer functions have tight relationship with the electrical length. When the electrical length is small, voltage loss of interference line along the transmission line is relatively small, so is the far-end crosstalk; however, when the electrical length is large, voltage loss and the far-end crosstalk is larger, and resonances at high frequency.

Keywords: Electromagnetic noise; FEKO; electrical length;

Introduction

With the increasing development and high frequency of electrical and electronic equipment, as the important component of various equipment connections, the immunity to electromagnetic noise of cables is extremely essential for the stable operation of electrical system [1-3]. Generally, electromagnetic noise can be divided into electromagnetic noise on G-line and new electromagnetic noise on R-line coupled by the electromagnetic noise of G-line, the latter is called crosstalk [4-6]. Because of the serious influence of the far-end electromagnetic noise on the device, we focus on the electromagnetic noise of the far-end multi-conductor cables [7-10]. This paper studies the G-line and R-line electromagnetic noise transfer condition in different situations based on MTL theory.

The Model of Electromagnetic Noise (N+1) Transmission Line

For (n + 1) transmission line systems, "n" refers to wires that transmit electromagnetic energy; "1" refers to a ground reference line, such as the case in a multi-electric aircraft, the body of an electric car, etc. The model of (n+1) transmission lines is shown in Figure 1. The near-end and far-end voltage of G-line are, respectively, ÛG(0) and ÛG(l). K can be called the " transfer coefficient of G-line voltage", which means that the closer the value is to 1.0, the smaller the voltage transfer loss; ÛG(0)and ÛG(l)can be derived by FEKO, then the amplitude of K can be obtained.


K= U G (l) U G (0)                (1) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4saiabg2 da9maalaaabaWaaybyaeqaleqameaacqGHNis2aOqaaiaadwfaaaWa aSbaaSqaaGqaaiaa=DeaaeqaaOGaaiikaGqaciaa+XgacaGGPaaaba WaaybyaeqaleqameaacqGHNis2aOqaaiaadwfaaaWaaSbaaSqaaiaa =DeaaeqaaOGaaiikaiaaicdacaGGPaaaaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiai aabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabccacaqGGaGa aeiiaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabIcacaqGXaGaaeykaaaa@5029@

HFE(ω) is the ratio of ÛR(l) to ÛG(0) which is called "characteristic of far-end crosstalk".


H FE (ω)= U R (l) U G (0)                (2) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamisamaaBa aaleaaieaacaWFgbGaa8xraaqabaGccaGGOaGaeqyYdCNaaiykaiab g2da9maalaaabaWaaybyaeqaleqameaacqGHNis2aOqaaiaadwfaaa WaaSbaaSqaaiaa=jfaaeqaaOGaaiikaGqaciaa+XgacaGGPaaabaWa aybyaeqaleqameaacqGHNis2aOqaaiaadwfaaaWaaSbaaSqaaiaa=D eaaeqaaOGaaiikaiaaicdacaGGPaaaaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaa bccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabccacaqGGaGaae iiaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabIcacaqGYaGaaeykaaaa@551B@

The far-end voltage of R-line UR(l) and the near-end voltage of G-line UG(0) can be erived by FEKO, so that the amplitude of the HFEcan be obtained.

Figure 1: (n+1) conductor transmission model

In fact, K and HFE are functions of length l of transmission lines and frequency f, for the reason that introduces the Le which is the ratio of l to wavelength λ.


K=K(f, l)        (3) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeeaaaaaaaaO R2jVkapeGaam4saiabg2da9iaadUeacaGGOaacbiGaa8Nzaiaa=Xca caWFGaGaa8hBaiaacMcacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiai aabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabIcacaqGZaGaaeykaaaa@4770@ H FE = H FE (f, l)       (4) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeeaaaaaaaaO R2jVkapeGaamisamaaBaaaleaaieaacaWFgbGaa8xraaqabaGccqGH 9aqpcaWGibWaaSbaaSqaaiaa=zeacaWFfbaabeaakiaacIcaieGaca GFMbGaa4hlaiaa+bcacaGFSbGaaiykaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaa bccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabccacaqGOaGaaeinaiaabMcaaaa@4A53@ L e =l/λ     (5) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeeaaaaaaaaO R2jVkapeGaamitamaaBaaaleaacaqGLbaabeaakiabg2da9Gqaciaa =XgacaGGVaGaeq4UdWMaaeiiaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabccaca qGOaGaaeynaiaabMcaaaa@44B1@

This comprehensive parameter makes (3) and (4) become

K=K( L e )        (6) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeeaaaaaaaaO R2jVkapeGaam4saiabg2da9iaadUeacaGGOaGaamitamaaBaaaleaa caqGLbaabeaakiaacMcacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiai aabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabIcacaqG2aGaaeykaaaa@4635@ H FE = H FE ( L e )        (7) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaahqart1ev3aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeeaaaaaaaaO R2jVkapeGaamisamaaBaaaleaaieaacaWFgbGaa8xraaqabaGccqGH 9aqpcaWGibWaaSbaaSqaaiaa=zeacaWFfbaabeaakiaacIcacaWGmb WaaSbaaSqaaiaabwgaaeqaaOGaaiykaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaa bccacaqGGaGaaeiiaiaabccacaqGGaGaaeikaiaabEdacaqGPaaaaa@49BF@

Based on this, the changes of K and HFE with Le are studied.


Based on this, the changes of K and HFE with Le are studied.

For case where the electrical length, Le, is small, the line can be represented by lumped parameters (inductance, capacitance, resistance). As Le increases, lumped parameter representation is no longer valid, and distributed parameter model must be used. For large Le , one convenient representation is with the ABCD parameters, which A, B, C, and D are hyperbolic function of the propagation constant γ = α + β, derived from the line physical parameters (resistance, capacitance, inductance and conductance). This article chooses to use FEKO simulation software to replace these traditional numerical calculation methods.

Electromagnetic noise characteristics at the far-end of (2+1) transmission line

For the frequency range of (0.1~300) MHz, that is, the electrical dimension Le is in the range of (0.0005~1.5) m, the (2+1) conductor transmission line simulation is performed in FEKO.

Figure 2: (2+1) conductor transmission model

In Figure 2, the length of the transmission line is l, the source on the interference line is composed of the noise source of G-lineUS and the source resistance RS. RL is the far-end load of the interference line, and RNE and RFE represent the near-end load and far-end load on the R-line, respectively. The cable structure in this section is shown in Table 1.

Figure 3 shows that, when the electrical length, Le= l/λ, is small, the loss of voltage is almost ignorable. As f increases (i.e., λ decreases) or l increases, Le increases, and the effects of distributed line parameters must be considered. Moreover, the number of resonance points increases, and the voltage amplitudes at the near and far ends of the lines are no longer approximately equal, which leads to significant variations of |K|.

Figure 3: Interference line voltage transfer coefficient K of (2+1) transmission line

As shown in Figure 4 when the electrical length is small, |HFE| is small, that is, the far-end crosstalk voltage is small at low frequency. As f increases (i.e., λ decreases) or l increases, Le increases, and the effects of distributed line parameters must be considered., |HFE| increases and when it rises to a certain level, it begins to fall which is caused by resonance point.

Figure 4: The far-end crosstalk transfer function HFE of the (2+1) transmission line

Electromagnetic Noise Characteristics of Multilayer Conductor Transmission Lines

For the (n+1, n>2) conductor system, the corresponding inductivecapacitive coupling model is too complicated compared to the (2+1) transmission line. This article takes n=7 and 19 as examples to research, where n=7 is a two-layer transmission line model, and n = 19 is a multi-layer (actually three-layer) transmission line model.

The cables simulated in this section are shown in Figure 5. No.1 conductor is the G-line, and No. (2 ~ 7) conductors are the R-line. The blue circles surround the orange and red circles, represent the wire insulation.

Figure 5: (7+1) conductor transmission lines

The cable structure in this section is shown in Table 2.

The simulation results show (Figure 6) that the far-end crosstalk voltages of No. (2~7) conductors are almost equal, so No.1 conductor is taken as the research object to study the features of K, and No.2 conductor is taken as the research object to study the features of HFE.

As shown in Figure7, when the electrical length is small, the loss of voltage is almost ignorable. As f increases (i.e., λ decreases) or l increases, Le increases, and the effects of distributed line parameters must be considered. Moreover, the number of resonance points increases, and the voltage amplitudes at the near and far ends of the lines are no longer approximately equal, which leads to significant variations of |K|. Compared with Figure 3, the amplitude of |K| oscillates violently at high frequency.

Figure 6: Far end crosstalk voltages of NO. (2~7) conductors

Figure 7: Interference line voltage transfer coefficient K of (7+1) transmission line

As shown in Figure 8, the features of |HFE| are similar to Figure 4, but resonance is more serious. The magnitude of |HFE| in Figure 8 is smaller than Figure 4 in that the length of transmission line is smaller.

Figure 8: Far end crosstalk transfer function HFE of the (7+1) transmission line

For the 3-layer transmission line, the simulation analysis is performed in the frequency range of (0.1~200) MHz, that is, Le is in the range of (0.0005~1) m. The (19+1) conductor transmission line is shown in Fig.9, the conductor No. 1 is the G-line, and the No. (2~9) conductors are the R-line.

The cable structure in this section is shown in Table 3

Figure 9: (19+1) conductor transmission lines

Figure 10: Far end crosstalk voltages of NO. (2~19) conductors

The simulation results show (Figure10) that the crosstalk voltages at the far end of No. (2~7) conductors in the middle layer are almost equal, and the crosstalk voltages of No. (8~19) conductors also has the same characteristics. Therefore, No.1 conductor is taken as the research object to study the features of K, and No.2 and No.8 conductors are the research object to study the features of HFE, which are called HFE2 and HFE8, respectively.

As shown in Figure 11, when the electrical length is small, the loss of voltage is almost ignorable. As f increases (i.e., λ decreases) or l increases, Le increases, the amplitude of |K| oscillates at high frequencies, which overall shows a downward trend.

As shown in Figure 12, when the electrical length is small, |HFE2| and |HFE8| are small, that is, the far-end crosstalk voltage is small at low frequency; as the electrical length increases, |HFE2| and |HFE8| increase. When it rises to a certain level, it starts to fall because of the resonance point. In addition, in the entire frequency band |HFE2| is slightly higher than |HFE2|. It can be seen that as the distance between the G-line and the R-line increases, the crosstalk voltage decreases.

Figure 11: Interference line voltage transfer coefficient of (7+1) transmission line

Figure 12: Far end crosstalk transfer function HFE of the (19+1) transmission line

Conclusion

  1. When electrical length is small, |K| is close to 1, which indicates that the voltage loss of the G-line is small at low frequency; |HFE| is close to 0, which indicates that the farend crosstalk voltage is small at low frequency
  2. As f increases (i.e., λ decreases) or l increases, Le increases, and the effects of distributed line parameters must be considered, and |K| shows a downward trend, indicating that the voltage on the G-line is losing along the transmission line; |HFE| begins to increase, indicating that the far-end crosstalk voltage has a positive correlation with the electrical length. And the resonance points appear when the electrical length is large
  3. The comparison of HFE2 and HFE8 shows that when the R-line is evenly distributed and the distance from the G-line is equal, the far-end crosstalk voltage is almost equal; when the G-line is set at the center of the harness, the closer the R-line is to the G-line, the more serious the crosstalk is.

Reference

  1. S Chabane, P Besnier, M Klingler. A Modified Enhanced Transmission Line Theory Applied to Multiconductor Transmission Lines. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility. 2017;59(2):518-528. DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2016.2611672
  2. Q Zhang, J Wan. The research of analytical approach for crosstalk of multi-conductor transmission lines. 2017 IEEE 2nd Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). Chongqing. 2017:1827-1831. DOI: 10.1109/IAEAC.2017.8054329
  3. J Ma, S Muroga, Y Endo, S Hashi, H Yokoyama, Y Hayashi, et al. Analysis of Magnetic-Film-Type Noise Suppressor Integrated on Transmission Lines for On-Chip Crosstalk Evaluation.IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54(6):1-4. DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2018.2812846
  4. S Chabane, P Besnier, M Klingler. An Embedded Double Reference Transmission Line Theory Applied to Cable Harnesses. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility. 2018;60(4):981-990. DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2017.2754470
  5. Y Ryu, KJ Han. Improved transmission line model of the stator winding structure of an AC motor considering high-frequency conductor and dielectric effects. 2017 IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC). Miami, FL. 2017:1-6. DOI: 10.1109/IEMDC.2017.8002140
  6. R Trinchero, IS Stievano, P Manfredi. Worst-case EMC investigation of single-wire transmission lines based on taylor arithmetic. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility & Signal/Power Integrity (EMCSI). Washington, DC. 2017:86-89. DOI: 10.1109/ISEMC.2017.8077846
  7. Y Yamashita, S Sugawa. Intercolor-Filter Crosstalk Model for Image Sensors With Color Filter Array.IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices.2018;65(6):2531-2536. DOI: 10.1109/TED.2018.2828861
  8. B Chen, S Pan, J Wang, S Yong, M Ouyang, J Fan. Differential Crosstalk Mitigation in the Pin Field Area of SerDes Channel With Trace Routing Guidance. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility. 2019;61(4):1385-1394. DOI: 10.1109/TEMC.2019.2925757
  9. R Meleiro, A Buxens, D Fonseca, J Castro, P Andre, P Monteiro. Impact of Self-Phase Modulation on In-Band Crosstalk Penalties. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 2008;20(8):644-646. DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2008.918819
  10. Y Lei, B Chen, M Gao, L Xiang, Q Zhang. Dynamic Routing, Core, and Spectrum Assignment with Minimized Crosstalk in Spatial Division Multiplexing Elastic Optical Networks. 2018 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP). Hangzhou. 2018:1-3.